Institute of Physiology - Department of Physiological Genomics

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curriculum vitae and publications

 CV Prof. Dr. Stephan Kröger


1965-1968 Grundschule Hamburg "Am Lehmkuhlenweg"  
1968-1977 Gymnasium Athenaeum Stade  
1977 Abiturprüfungen  

academic curriculum

1977-1978 "studium generale" at Leibniz Kolleg, Tübingen  
1978-1979 chemistry studies at the University of Tübingen  
1979 biochemisty studies at the University of Tübingen  
1981 master in biochemistry  
1981/1982 eight-month stay in the Department of  Biochemistry at the University of Liverpool, England  
1984 diploma exam in biochemistry  
1984-1986 diplomawork at the Max-Planck-Institute for Developmental Biology, Tübingen  
1986-1989 PhD thesis at the Max-Planck-Institute for Developmental Biology.  
1989-1992 postdoktoral fellow at the Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, in the lab of Dr. U. J. McMahan.  
1992-2000 head of an independent research lab at the Max-Planck-Institute for Brain Research in Frankfurt
1993-2000 teaching in the Department of Biology at the Technical University Darmstadt.  
1998 habilitation at the University of Darmstadt, "venia legendi" for Cell Biology and Neurobiology  
2000 - 2006 assistant professor at the Institute for Physiological Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry  at the University of Mainz  
2006 - 2007 Professor for Molecular Cell Biology at the University of Applied Sciences Lausitz  
since 2007 Professor for the Physiology of Adult Neurogenesis in the Department of Physiology of the Medical School at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich

Peer-reviewed publications and reviews


Choi HY, Liu Y, Tennert C, Sugiura Y, Karakatsani A, Kröger S, Johnson EB, Hammer RE, Lin W, Herz J. (2013) APP interacts with LRP4 and agrin to coordinate the development of the neuromuscular junction in mice. Elife. 20: 2:e00220. doi: 10.7554/eLife.00220.


Pevzner, A., Schoser, B., Peters, K., Cosma, N.C., Karakatsani, A., Schalke, B., Melms, A., and Kroger, S. (2012). Anti-LRP4 autoantibodies in AChR- and MuSK-antibody-negative myasthenia gravis. Journal of Neurology 259: 427-435.

Burk, K., Desoeuvre, A., Boutin, C., Smith, M.A., Kroger, S., Bosio, A., Tiveron, M.C., and Cremer, H. (2012). Agrin-signaling is necessary for the integration of newly generated neurons in the adult olfactory bulb. Journal of Neuroscience 32: 3759-3764.


Porten E., Seliger B., Schneider V.A., Wöll S., Stangel D., Ramseger R., and Kröger S. (2010) The process-inducing activity of transmembrane agrin requires follistatin-like domains. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 285: 3114-3125.

Patzke C., Max K.E., Behlke J., Schreiber J., Schmidt H., Dorner A., Kröger S., Henning M., Otto A., Heinemann U., and Rathjen F. (2010) The coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor reveals complex homophilic and heterophilic interactions on neural cells. Journal of Neuroscience 30: 2897-2910.


Jimenez-Mallebrera C., Torelli S., Feng L., Kim J., Godfrey C., Clement E., Mein R., Abbs S., Brown S.C., Campbell K.P., Kröger S., Talim B., Topaloglu H., Quinlivan R., Roper H., Childs A.M., Kinali M., Sewry C.A., and Muntoni F. (2009) A comparative study of alpha-dystroglycan glycosylation in dystroglycanopathies suggests that the hypoglycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan does not consistently correlate with clinical severity. Brain Pathology 19: 596-611.

Kröger. S. and Pfister, H. (2009) Agrin in the nervous system - synaptogenesis and beyond. Future Neurology 4: 67 - 86.

Ramseger R, White R, and Kröger S. (2009) Transmembrane form agrin-induced process formation requires lipid rafts and the activation of Fyn and MAPK. Journal of Biological Chemistry 284: 7697-7705.


Yamamoto, T., Kato, Y., Kawaguchi-Niida, M., Shibata, N., Osawa, M., Saito, K., Kröger, S., and Kobayashi, M. (2008) Characteristics of neurons and glia in the brain of Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy. Acta Myologica 27: 9 - 13.


Schröder, J.E., Tegeler, M., Großhans, U., Porten, E., Blank, M., Lee, J., Esapa, C., Blake, D.J., and Kröger, S. (2007) Dystroglycan regulates structure, proliferation and differentiation of neuroepithelial cells in the developing vertebrate CNS. Developmental Biology 307: 62 – 78.

Noell, S., Fallier-Becker,P., Beyer, C., Kröger, S., Mack, A.F., and Wolburg, H. (2007) Effects of agrin on the expression and distribution of the water channel protein aquaporin-4 and volume regulation in cultured astrocytes. European Journal of Neuroscience 26: 2109 – 2118.


Jastrow. H., Koulen, P., Altrock, W.D., and Kröger, S. (2006) Identification of a β-dystroglycan immunoreactive sub-compartment in photoreceptor terminals. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 47: 17-24.

Annies, M., Bittcher, G., Ramseger, R., Löschinger, J., Wöll, S., Porten, E., Abraham, C., Rüegg, M.A., and Kröger, S. (2006) Clustering of transmembrane-agrin induces filopodia-like processes on axons and dendrites. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 31: 515 – 524.


Schnepp A., Lindgren P., Hülsmann H., Kröger S, Paulsson M., and Hartmann U. (2005) Mouse testican-2: Expression, glycosylation and effects on neurite outgrowth. Journal of Biological Chemistry 280: 11274-11280.

Saito, F., Blank, M., Schröder, J., Manya, H., Shimizu, T., Campbell, K.P., Endo, T., Mizutani, M., Kröger, S., and Matsumura, M. (2005) Aberrant glycosylation of α-dystroglycan causes defective binding of laminin in the muscle of chicken muscular dystrophy. FEBS Letters 579: 2359-2363.


Brown, S.C., Torelli, S., Brockington, M., Yuva, Y., Jimenez, C., Feng, L., Anderson, L., Ugo, I., Kröger, S., Bushby, K., Voit, T., Sewry, C., and Muntoni, F. (2004) Abnormalities in α-Dystroglycan Expression in MDC1C and LGMD2I Muscular Dystrophies. American Journal of Pathology 164: 727-737.

Warth A., Kröger, S., and Wolburg, H. (2004) Loss of agrin immunoreactivity from brain capillary basal laminae correlates with the redistribution of aquaporin-4 in human glioblastoma multiforme. Acta Neuropathologica 207: 311-318.

Herzog, C., Has, C., Franzke, C.-W., Echtermeyer, F.G., Kröger, S., Gustafsson, E., Fässler, R., Bruckner-Tuderman, L. (2004) Dystroglycan in skin and cutaneous cells: β-subunit is shed from the cell surface. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 122: 1372-1380.

Saito, F., Blank, M., Schröder, J., Manya, H., Shimizu, T., Campbell, K.P., Endo, T., Mizutani, M., Kröger, S., Matsumura, K. (2004) Aberrant glycosylation and defective laminin-binding of alpha-dystroglycan in chicken muscular dystrophy. Neuromuscular Disorders 14: 603-604.


Esapa, C.T., Bentham, G.R.B., Schröder, J.E., Kröger, S., and Blake, D.J. (2003) The effects of post-translational processing on dystroglycan synthesis and trafficking. FEBS Letters 555: 209-216.


Kröger, S. (2002) Agrin: ein Hauptregulator der Synapsenbildung. BIOforum 12: 49-51

Blank, M., Blake, D.J. and Kröger, S. (2002) Molecular heterogeneity of dystrophin-like complexes in the developing and adult retina. Neuroscience 111: 259-273

Kröger, S., and Schröder, J. E. (2002) Agrin in the CNS: New roles for a synapse organizer. News in Physiological Science 17: 207-212.

Rascher, G., Fischmann, A., Kröger, S., Duffner, F., Grote, E. H., Wolburg, H. (2002) Extracellular matrix and the blood-brain barrier in glioblastoma multiforme: spatial segregation of tenascin and agrin. Acta Neuropathologica 104: 85-91.

Annies, M., and Kröger, S. (2002) Isoform pattern and AChR aggregation activity of agrin expressed by embryonic chick retinal ganglion neurons. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 20: 525-535.

Esapa, C. T., Benson M. A., Schröder, J. E., Martin-Rendon, E., Brockington, M., Brown, S.C., Muntoni, F., Kröger, S., and Blake, D.J. (2002) Functional requirements for fukutin-related protein in the Golgi apparatus. Human Molecular Genetics 11: 3319-3331.


Neumann, F.R., Bittcher, G., Annies, M., Schumacher, B., Kröger, S., and Ruegg, M.A. (2001) An alternative amino-terminus expressed in the central nervous system converts agrin to a type II transmembrane protein. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 17: 208-225.

Yard, B. A., Kahlert, S., Engelleiter, R., Resch, S., Waldherr, R., Groffen, A. J., van den Heuvel, L. P. W. J., van der Born, J., Berden, J. H. M., Kröger, S., Hafner, M., and van der Woude, F. J. (2001). Decreased glomerular expression of agrin in diabetic nephropathy and podocytes, cultured in high glucose medium. Experimental Nephrology 9: 214-222.

Kröger, S. (2001) Extracellular Signals regulating nervous system development. In: The Neurosciences at the Turn of the Century. Seite 669-672; Ed. N. Elsner and G. W. Kreutzberg; Thieme Verlag Stuttgart

Schröder, J.E., Tegeler, M., and Kröger, S. (2001) Die molekulare Grundlage von Muskeldystrophien. BioForum 11: 2-4.


Blake, D.J., and Kröger, S. (2000) The neurobiology of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: learning lessons from muscle? Trends in Neurosciences 23: 92-99.

Hering, H., Koulen, P., and Kröger, S. (2000) Distribution and subcellular concentration of β1 integrin in radial cells of the developing and adult avian retina. Journal of Comparative Neurology 424: 153-164.

Herrmann, R., Straub V., Blank, M., Kutzick, C., Franke, N., Neuen Jacob, E., Lenard, H.-G., Kröger, S., and Voit, T. (2000) Dissociation of the dystroglycan-complex in caveolin-3-deficient Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy. Human Molecular Genetics 9: 2335-2340.


Blank, M., Koulen, P., Blake, D., and Kröger, S. (1999) Dystrophin and beta-dystroglycan in photoreceptor terminals from normal and mdx3Cv mouse retinae. European Journal of Neuroscience 11: 2121-2133.

Koulen, P., Honig, L.S., Fletcher, E.L. and Kröger, S. (1999) Expression, distribution, and ultrastructural localization of the synapse-organizing molecule agrin in the mature avian retina. European Journal of Neuroscience 11: 4188-4196.

Hering, H. and Kröger, S. (1999) Synapse formation and agrin expression in stratospheroid cultures from embryonic chick retina. Developmental Biology 214: 412-428.

Yard, B.A., Resch, S., Kahlert, S., Berden, J., van der Born, J., Kröger, S., Waldherr, R., and van der Woude, F.J. (1999) Expression of agrin in the glomerular basement membrane in human glomerular diseases. Kidney International 55: 2601-2602.


Koulen, P., Blank, M., and Kröger, S. (1998) Differential distribution of β-dystroglycan in rabbit and rat retina. Journal of Neuroscience Research 51: 735-747.


Koulen, P., Brandtstätter, J. H., Kröger, S., Enz, R., Bormann, J., and Wässle, H. (1997) Immunocytochemical localization of the GABAC receptor σ-subunits in the cat, goldfish and chicken retina. Journal of Comparative Neurology 380: 520-532

Reiss, Y., Layer, P. G., and Kröger, S. (1997) Butyrylcholinesterase-positive cells of the developing chicken retina that are noncholinergic and GABA positive. Developmental Brain Research 100: 62-72

Kröger, S. (1997) Molecular determinants involved in nervous system development. In: From Membrane to Mind. Seite 430-433; N. Elsner and H. Wässle; Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart.

Sorokin, L. M., Pausch, F., Frieser, M., Kröger, S., Ohage, E., and Deutzmann, R. (1997) Developmental regulation of the laminin α5 chain suggests a role in epithelial and endothelial cell maturation. Developmental Biology 189: 285-300.

Galarraga, E., and Kröger, S. (1997) Connections between neuroscientists from Europe and Latin America reinforced. Trends in Neurosciences 20: 549-551

Blank, M., Koulen, P., and Kröger, S. (1997) Subcellular concentration of β-dystroglycan in photoreceptor terminals and Müller glial cells of the chick retina. Journal of Comparative Neurology 389: 668-678

Kröger, S. (1997) Differential distribution of agrin isoforms in the developing and adult avian retina. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 10: 149-161.


Kröger, S., Horton, S.E., and Honig, L.S. (1996) The developing avian retina expresses agrin isoforms during development. Journal of Neurobiology 29: 165-182.

Kirsch, J., and Kröger, S. (1996) Postsynaptic anchoring of receptors: A cellular approach to neuronal and muscular sensitivity. The Neuroscientist 2: 100-108.

Kröger, S., and Mann, S. (1996) Biochemical and functional characterization of basal lamina-bound agrin in the central nervous system. European Journal of Neuroscience 8: 500-509.

Jones, G., Herczeg, A., Ruegg, M.A., Lichtsteiner, M., Kröger, S., and Brenner, H.R. (1996) Substrate-bound agrin induces expression of acetylcholine receptor ε-subunit gene in cultured mammalian muscle cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (USA) 93: 5985-5990.

Reiss, Y., Kröger, S., Grassi, J., Tsim, K.W.K., Willbold, E., and Layer, P.G. (1996) Extracellular and asymmetric forms of acetylcholinesterase are expressed on cholinergic and non-cholinergic terminal neuropil of the developing chick retina. Cell and Tissue Research 286: 13-22.

Hering, H., and Kröger, S. (1996) Formation of synaptic specializations in the inner plexiform layer of the developing chick retina. Journal of Comparative Neurology 375: 393-405.

Mann, S., and Kröger, S. (1996) Agrin is synthesized by retinal cells and colocalizes with gephyrin. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 8: 1-13

Before 1996

Tsen, G. Halfter, W. Kröger, S., and Cole, G.J. (1995) Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Journal of Biological Chemistry 270: 3392-3399.

McMahan, U.J., Horton, S.E., Werle, M.J., Honig, L.S., Kröger, S., Ruegg, M.A., and Escher, G. (1992) Agrin isoforms and their role in synaptogenesis. Current Oppinion in Cell Biology 4: 869-874.

Ruegg, M.A., Tsim, K.W.K., Horton, S.E., Kröger, S., and McMahan, U.J. (1992) The agrin gene codes for a family of basal lamina proteins that differ in function and distribution. Neuron 8: 691-699.

Tsim, K.W.K., Ruegg, M.A., Escher, G., Kröger, S., and McMahan, U.J. (1992). cDNA that encodes active agrin. Neuron 8: 677-689.

Kröger, S., and Walter, J. (1991). Molecular mechanisms separating two axonal pathways during development of the avian optic tectum. Neuron 6: 291-303.

Kröger, S., and Schwarz, U. (1990). The avian tectobulbar tract: Development, explant culture, and effects of antibodies on the pattern of neurite outgrowth. Journal of Neuroscience 10: 3118-3134.

Kröger, S., and Niehörster, L. (1990). Isolation, characterization and substrate properties of the external limiting membrane from the avian embryonic optic tectum. Journal of Neuroscience Research 27: 169-183.

Halfter, W., Reckhaus, W., and Kröger, S. (1987). Nondirected axonal growth on basal lamina from avian embryonic retina. Journal of Neuroscience 7: 3712-3722.